Author
Abstract
<p><b>INTRODUCTION: </b>Child occupant safety in motor-vehicle crashes is evaluated using Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) seated in optimal positions. However, child occupants often assume suboptimal positions during real-world driving trips. Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children (Bohman et al., 2011). There is therefore a need to understand the interaction of children with the Child Restraint System to optimize protection.</p>

<p><b>METHOD: </b>Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) will improve understanding of out-of-position (OOP) trends. To quantify OOP positions, an NDS was conducted. Families used a study vehicle for two weeks during their everyday driving trips. The positions of rear-seated child occupants, representing 22 families, were evaluated. The study vehicle - instrumented with data acquisition systems, including Microsoft Kinect™ V1 - recorded rear seat occupants in 1120 driving 26 trips. Three novel analytical methods were used to analyze data. To assess skeletal tracking accuracy, analysts recorded occurrences where Kinect™ exhibited invalid head recognition among a randomly-selected subset (81 trips). Errors included incorrect target detection (e.g., vehicle headrest) or environmental interference (e.g., sunlight). When head data was present, Kinect™ was correct 41% of the time; two other algorithms - filtering for extreme motion, and background subtraction/head-based depth detection are described in this paper and preliminary results are presented. Accuracy estimates were not possible because of their experimental nature and the difficulty to use a ground truth for this large database. This NDS tested methods to quantify the frequency and magnitude of head positions for rear-seated child occupants utilizing Kinect™ motion-tracking.</p>

<p><b>RESULTS: </b>This study's results informed recent ATD sled tests that replicated observed positions (most common and most extreme), and assessed the validity of child occupant protection on these typical CRS uses.</p>

<p><b>SUMMARY: </b>Optimal protection in vehicles requires an understanding of how child occupants use the rear seat space. This study explored the feasibility of using Kinect™ to log positions of rear seated child occupants. Initial analysis used the Kinect™ system's skeleton recognition and two novel analytical algorithms to log head location.</p>

<p><b>PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: </b>This research will lead to further analysis leveraging Kinect™ raw data - and other NDS data - to quantify the frequency/magnitude of OOP situations, ATD sled tests that replicate observed positions, and advances in the design and testing of child occupant protection technology.</p>
Year of Publication
2017
Journal
Journal of Safety Research
Volume
63
Number of Pages
135-143
Date Published
12/2017
ISSN Number
1879-1247
DOI
10.1016/j.jsr.2017.10.005
Alternate Journal
J Safety Res
PMID
29203011