Center for Injury Research and Prevention

Posttraumatic Stress in Children After Injury: The Role of Acute Pain and Opioid Medication Use.

TitlePosttraumatic Stress in Children After Injury: The Role of Acute Pain and Opioid Medication Use.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsHildenbrand AK, Kassam-Adams N, Barakat LP, Kohser KL, Ciesla JA, Delahanty DL, Fein JA, Ragsdale LB, Marsac ML
JournalPediatr Emerg Care
Date Published2018 Jan 16
ISSN1535-1815
Abstract

OBJECTIVES: After injury, many children experience posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) that negatively impact recovery. Acute pain and PTSS share neurobiological pathways, and acute dosage of morphine has been linked to reduced PTSS in naturalistic studies. However, the complex interactions between pain, morphine and other opioid use, and PTSS have yet to be investigated in robust pediatric samples.This prospective, longitudinal study examined relationships between acute pain, opioid medications, and PTSS after pediatric injury.

METHODS: Ninety-six children aged 8 to 13 years (mean = 10.60, SD = 1.71), hospitalized for unintentional injury, completed assessments at baseline (T1) and 12 weeks (T2) later. Pain ratings and opioid administration data were obtained via chart review.

RESULTS: Structural equation modeling revealed that worst pain endorsed during hospitalization was positively associated with concurrent and later PTSS when controlling for evidence-based risk factors (ie, age, sex, prior trauma history, traumatic appraisals of injury event, heart rate). Neither opioid medications overall nor morphine specifically (milligram/kilogram/day) administered during hospitalization mediated the relationship between pain and T2 PTSS.

CONCLUSIONS: Pain during hospitalization may increase susceptibility for persistent PTSS above and beyond the influence of other empirical risk factors. Findings suggest that pain assessment may be a useful addition to pediatric PTSS screening tools and highlight the need for additional research on pharmacological secondary prevention approaches. Given that inadequate pain control and persistent PTSS each hinder recovery and long-term functioning, better understanding of interactions between acute pain and PTSS after injury is essential for improving screening, prevention, and early intervention efforts.

DOI10.1097/PEC.0000000000001404
Alternate JournalPediatr Emerg Care
PubMed ID29346235
Grant ListK23 MH093618 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States