VPI Bibliography

The citations for the facts and statistics referenced on the web pages about the Violence Prevention Initiative are provided below. CHOP researchers and clinicians, who are expert in violence prevention as well as adolescent health and development, help to ensure that this information is evidenced-informed and current with the state of the science.

Signature Programs of the VPI

  • Partner for Prevention
    • Guerra NG, Huesmann LR, Spindler A. Community violence exposure, social cognition and aggression among urban elementary school children. Child Development. 2003;74:1561–76.
    • Henry D, Guerra N, Huesmann R, Tolan P, VanAcker R, Eron L. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classroom. American Journal of Community Psychology. 2000;28:59–81.
    • Leff SS, Hoffman JA, Gullan RL. Intervention Integrity: New Paradigms and Applications. School Mental Health. 2009 Sep 1;1(3):103-6.
    • Staff J, Kreager DA. Too cool for school? Violence, peer status and high school dropout. Social Forces. 2008;87:445-71.
    • Thomas DE, Stevenson H. Gender risks and education: The particular classroom challenges for urban low-income African American boys. Review of Research in Education. 2009;33:160–80.
    • Wandersman A, Nation M. Urban neighborhoods and mental health: Psychological contributions to understanding toxicity, resilience, and interventions. American Psychologist. 1998;53:647-56.
  • Children's and Mom's Project
    • Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Bremner JD, Walker JD, Whitfield C, Perry BD, et al. The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 2006 Apr;256(3):174-86.
    • Bensley L, Van Eenwyk J, Wynkoop Simmons K. Childhood family violence history and women's risk for intimate partner violence and poor health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2003 Jul;25(1):38-44.
    • Berton M, Stabb S. Exposure to violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in urban adolescents. Adolescence.1996;31(122):489-99.
    • Cannon EA, Bonomi AE, Anderson ML, Rivara FP. The intergenerational transmission of witnessing intimate partner violence. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2009 Aug;163(8):706-8.
    • Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Edwards VJ, Williamson DF. Exposure to abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction among adults who witnessed intimate partner violence as children: implications for health and social service providers. Violence and Victims. 2002;17(1):3-17.
    • Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1998 May;14(4):245-58.
    • McDonald R, Jouriles EN, Ramisetty-Mikler S, Caetano R, Green CE. Estimating the number of American children living in partner-violent families. Journal of Family Psychology. 2006;20(1):137-42.
    • Silva RR, Alpert M, Munoz DM, Singh S, Matzner F, Dummit S. Stress and vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000;157(8):1229-1235.
  • Multimedia Bullying Prevention Program
    • Bradshaw CP, Sawyer AL, O’Brennan LM. Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review. 2007;36:359-380.
    • Robers S, Zhang J, Truman J, Snyder TD. Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2011. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice; 2012 [cited 2013 December 5]

Types of Violence Involving Youth

  • Briggs-Gowan MJ, Ford JD, Fraleigh L, McCarthy K, Carter AS. Prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic events in a healthy birth cohort of very young children in the northeastern United States. Journal of Trauma Stress. Dec 2010;23(6):725-733.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 10 Leading Causes of Death and Injury. 2012.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nonfatal Injury Data. 2012.
  • Cheng TL, Wright J, Fields CB, et al. Violent injuries among adolescents: declining morbidity and mortality in an urban population. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2001;37(3):292-300.

Bullying in Schools

  • Bradshaw CP, Sawyer AL, O’Brennan LM. Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review. 2007;36:359-380.
  • Calvete E, Orue I, Estévez A, Villardón L, Padilla P. Cyberbullying in adolescents: Modalities and aggressors’ profile. Computers in Human Behavior. 2010; 26(5), 1128-1135.
  • Cohn A, Canter A. Bullying: Facts for schools and parents. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists; 2003 [cited 2013 December 5]
  • Davison KK, Birch LL. Lean and weight stable: Behavioral predictors and psychological correlates. Obesity Research. 2004;12(7):1085-1093.
  • Farrington DP, Ttofi MM. Protective and promotive factors in the development of offending. In: Bliesener T, Beelman A, Stemmler M, editors. Antisocial behaviour and crime: Contributions of theory and evaluation research to prevention and intervention. Cambridge, Mass: Hogrefe Publishing; 2011. pp. 71 – 88.
  • Leff S, Costigan T, Power T. Using participatory-action research to develop a playground-based prevention program. Journal of School Psychology. 2004;42:3-21.
  • Olweus D. Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, Inc; 1993.
  • Olweus D, Limber SP. Bullying in school: evaluation and dissemination of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 2010;80(1):124-134.
  • Robers S, Kemp J, Truman J, Snyder TD. Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2012 (NCES 2013-036/NCJ 241446). 2013. 
  • Robers S, Zhang J, Truman J, Snyder TD. Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2011. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice; 2012 [cited 2013 December 5].
  • Vaillancourt T, McDougall P, Hymel S, Sunderani S. Respect or fear? The relationship between power and bullying behavior. In: Jimerson SR, Swearer SM, Espelage DL, editors. Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective. New York: Routledge; 2010. pp. 211-222.
  • Wang J, Iannotti RJ, Nansel TR. School bullying among adolescents in the United States: physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. The Journal of Adolescent Health. 2009;45(4):368-375.

Bullying: A Deeper Dive

  • Bauer KW, Yank YW, Austin SB. "How can we stay healthy when you're throwing all of this in front of us?" Findings from focus groups and interviews in middle schools on enviornmental influeces on nutrition and physical activity. Health Education & Behavior. 2004;31(1):34-46.
  • Crick NR, Ostrov JM, Kawabata Y. Relational aggression and gender: An overview. In: Flannery DJ, Vazsonyi AT, Waldman ID, editors. The Cambridge handbook of violent behavior and aggression. New York: Cambridge; 2007. pp. 245–259.
  • Crick NR, Grotpeter JK. Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development. 1995;66(3):710-22.
  • Daniels SR. The consequences of childhood overwight and obesity. Future Child. 2006;16(1):47-67.
  • GLSEN. The 2009 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York, NY: The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network; 2009 [cited 2013 December 5].
  • Janssen I, Craig WM, Boyce WF, Pickett W. Associations between overweight and obesity with bullying behaviors in school-aged children. Pediatrics. 2004;113(5):1187-1194.
  • Kosciw JG, Diaz EM, Greytak EA. The 2007 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: GLSEN; 2008.
  • Kosciw JG, Greytak EA, Diaz EM, Bartkiewicz MJ. The 2009 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: GLSEN; 2010.
  • Leff S, Costigan T, Power T. Using participatory-action research to develop a playground-based prevention program. Journal of School Psychology. 2004;42:3-21.
  • Lumeng JC, Forrest P, Appugliese DP, Kaciroti N, Corwyn RF, Bradley RH. Weight status as a predictor of being bullied in third through sixth grades. Pediatrics. 2010;125(6):e1301-e1307.
  • Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2012;307(5):483-490
  • Poteat VP, Espelage DL. Exploring the relation between bullying and homophobic verbal content: The Homophobic Content Agent Target (HCAT) Scale. Violence and Victims. 2005;20(5):513-528.
  • Poteat VP, Rivers I. The use of homophobic language across bullying roles during adolescence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 2010;31:166-172.
  • Talbott E, Celinska D, Simpson J, Coe MG. “Somebody else making somebody else fight”: Aggression and the social context among urban adolescent girls. Exceptionality. 2002;10(3):203-220.

Domestic Violence and Child Abuse

  • Appel AE, Holden GW. Co-occurring spouse and child abuse: Implications for CPS practice. APSAC Advisor. 1998;11(1):11-14
  • Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Bremner JD, Walker JD, Whitfield C, Perry BD, et al. The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 2006 Apr;256(3):174-86.
  • Bensley L, Van Eenwyk J, Wynkoop Simmons K. Childhood family violence history and women's risk for intimate partner violence and poor health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2003 Jul;25(1):38-44.
  • Berton M, Stabb S. Exposure to violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in urban adolescents. Adolescence.1996;31(122):489-99.
  • Catalano, Shannan. 2007. Intimate Partner Violence in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics; 2007 December 19 [cited 2014 January 13]
  • Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Edwards VJ, Williamson DF. Exposure to abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction among adults who witnessed intimate partner violence as children: implications for health and social service providers. Violence and Victims. 2002;17(1):3-17.
  • Edleson JL. The overlap between child maltreatment and woman battering. Violence Against Women. 1999;5(2):134-154.
  • Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1998 May;14(4):245-58.
  • Fusco RA, Fantuzzo JW. Domestic violence crimes and children: A population-based investigation of direct sensory exposure and the nature of involvement. Children and Youth Services Review. 2009;31(2):249-56.
  • Gold J, Sullivan MW, Lewis M. The relation between abuse and violent delinquency: The conversion of shame to blame in juvenile offenders. Child Abuse and Neglect. 2011;35(7):459–467.
  • Hughes HM, Parkinson D, Vargo M. Witnessing spouse abuse and experiencing physical abuse: A "double whammy"? Journal of Family Violence. 1989;4(2):197-209.
  • Ireland TO, Smith CA. Living in Partner-violent families: Developmental links to antisocial behavior and relationship violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2009;38(3):323-339.
  • Kernic MA, Wolf ME, Holt VL, McKnight B, Huebner CE, Rivara FP. Behavioral problems among children whose mothers are abused by an intimate partner. Child Abuse and Neglect. 2003;27(11):1231-46.
  • Lipsky S, Caetano R, Field CA, Larkin GL. Psychosocial and substance-use risk factors for intimate partner violence. Drug Alcohol Dependence. 2005 Apr 4;78(1):39-47.
  • McDonald R, Jouriles EN, Ramisetty-Mikler S, Caetano R, Green CE. Estimating the number of American children living in partner-violent families. Journal of Family Psychology. 2006;20(1):137-42.
  • McKinney CM, Caetano R, Ramisetty-Mikler S, Nelson S. Childhood family violence and perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence: findings from a national population-based study of couples. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jan;19(1):25-32.
  • PolicyLab: Child Welfare. Philadelphia, PA: Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; 2014 [cited 2014 January 13]
  • Renner LM, Slack KS. Intimate partner violence and child maltreatment: Understanding intra- and intergenerational connections. Child Abuse Negl. 2006;30(6):599-617.
  • Roberts AL, Gilman SE, Fitzmaurice G, Decker MR, Koenen KC. Witness of intimate partner violence in childhood and perpetration of intimate partner violence in adulthood. Epidemiology. 2010 November;21(6):809-818.
  • Saltzman LE, Fanslow JL, McMahon PM, Shelley GA. Intimate partner violence surveillance: uniform definitions and recommended data elements, version 1.0. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2002.
  • Silva RR, Alpert M, Munoz DM, Singh S, Matzner F, Dummit S. Stress and vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000;157(8):1229-1235.
  • Stark E, Filcraft AH. Witnessing spouse abuse and experiencing physical abuse: A “double whammy”? Journal of Family Violence. 1998;4(2):197-209.
  • Strauss MA, Gelles RJ. Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8,145 families. The Canadian Journal of Sociology. 1991;16(3):326-328.
  • Thompson RS, Bonomi AE, Anderson M, Reid RJ, Dimer JA, Carrell D, et al. Intimate partner violence: prevalence, types, and chronicity in adult women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2006 Jun;30(6):447-57.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, T. Child Maltreatment 2011. Washington, DC; 2011 [cited 2014 January 13]
  • U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Domestic Violence/Abuse Statistics. Washington, DC; 2013 June 28 [cited 2014 January 13]
  • Whitfield CL, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ. Violent childhood experiences and the risk of intimate partner violence in adults: assessment in a large health maintenance organization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2003;18(2):166-85.
  • Xiangming F, Corso P. Child maltreatment, youth violence, and intimate partner violence: Developmental relationships. American Journal of Preventative Medicine. 2007;33(4).

Gun Violence

  • Albright T, Burge SK. Improving Firearm Storage Habits: Impact of Brief Office Counseling by Family Physicians. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice. 2003 Jan-Feb;16(1):40-6.
  • Katherine L. Record, JD, MPH, MA; Lawrence O. Gostin, JD. A Systematic Plan for Firearms Law Reform. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2013;309(12):1231-1232. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.1127
  • Nance ML, Carr BG, Kallan MJ, Branas CC, Wiebe DJ. Urban US Counties Variation in Pediatric and Adolescent Firearm Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban US Counties. Pediatrics. Originally published online May 24, 2010; 2010;125;1112.
  • Nance ML, Denysenko L, Durbin DR, Branas CC, Stafford PW, Schwab CW. The rural-urban continuum: variability in statewide serious pediatric and adolescent firearm injuries. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 2002;156(8):781-785.
  • National Physicians Alliance. Gun Safety and Public Health: Policy Recommendations for a more secure America. August 2013.
  • WISQARS 2010

Gun Violence Facts and Statistics

  • Azrael D, Miller D, Hemenway D. Are Household Firearms Stored Safely? It Depends on Whom You Ask.  Pediatrics Vol. 106 No. 3 September 1, 2000, pp. e31
  • Baxley F, Miller M. Parental Misperceptions About Children and Firearms. Archives Of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 542, 544 (2006).
  • Campbell JC et al., Risk Factors for Femicide in Abusive Relationships: Re­sults from a Multisite Case Control Study. American Journal Of Public Health. 1089, 1092 (2003).
  • Clark ME, O'Donnell N. Newtown school gunman fired 154 rounds in less than 5 minutes. Reuters. Mar 28, 2013
  • Congressional Research Service. CRS Report for Congress: Gun Control Legislation (Aug. 3, 2012)
  • Follman M, Aronsen G, Pan D. Guide to Mass Shootings in America. Mother Jones. Last update: Sept.16, 2013
  • Fotios C. Papadopoulos et al., Preventing Suicide and Homicide in the United States: The Potential Benefit in Human Lives. Psychiatry Research 154 (2009)
  • Grossman DC et al., Self-Inflicted and Unintentional Firearm Injuries Among Chil­dren and Adolescents: The Source of the Fire­arm. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 875, 875 (1999).
  • Guohua Li et al., Factors Associated with the Intent of Firearm-Related Injuries in Pediatric Trauma Patients. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 1160, 1162 (1996).
  • Hepburn L, Azrael D, Miller M. et al The effects of child access prevention laws on unintentional child firearm fatalities, 1979–2000. Journal of Trauma 2006. 61423–428.428
  • Kellermann AL, Rivara FP. Silencing the Science on Gun Research. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2013;309(6):549-550. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.208207
  • Ladapo JA, Rodwin BA, Ryan AM, Trasande L, Blustein J. Scientific Publications on Firearms in Youth Before and After Congressional Action Prohibiting Federal Research Funding. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2013;310(5):532-534.
  • Luo M, McIntire M. Children and Guns: The Hidden Toll. The New York Times. Sept 28, 2103
  • Matthew Miller et al. Household Firearm Ownership and Suicide Rates in the United States. Epidemiology 517 (2002).
  • Matthew Miller et al. The Epidemiology of Case Fatality Rates for Suicide in the North­east. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 723, 726 (2004).
  • Matthew Miller et al., Suicide Mortality in the United States: The Importance of Attend­ing to Method in Understanding Population- Level Disparities in the Burden of Suicide, 33 Ann. Rev. Pub. Health 393 (2012).
  • Cook PJ, Ludwig J. U.S. Dep’t of Justice, Nat’l Inst. of Justice, Guns in Amer­ica: National Survey on Private Ownership and Use of Firearms, at 7 (1997).
  • U.S. General Accounting Office, Acciden­tal Shootings: Many Deaths and Injuries Caused by Firearms Could Be Prevented 17 (Mar. 1991)
  • Wiebe, DJ. Firearms in U.S. Homes as a Risk Factor for Unintentional Gunshot Fatality. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 711, 713-14 (2003).
  • WISQARS 2010

Factors Affecting Youth and Violence

  • Berkowitz, SJ. Children exposed to community violence: The rationale for early intervention. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review. 2003 Dec;6(4):293-302.
  • Delaney-Black V, Covington C, Ondersma SJ, et al. Violence exposure, trauma, and IQ and/or reading deficits among urban children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 2002;156(3):280
  • Ellickson P, Saner H, McGuigan KA. Profiles of violent youth: substance use and other concurrent problems. American Journal of Public Health. 1997 Jun;87(6):985-91.
  • Groves BM, Zuckerman B, Marans S, and Cohen D. Silent victims: Children who witness violence. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1993 Jan 13;269(2):262-4.
  • Holbrook T, Hoyt D, Coimbra R, Potenza B, Sise M, Anderson J. Long-term posttraumatic stress disorder persists after major trauma in adolescents: New data on risk factors and functional outcome. Journal of Trauma- Injury Infection and Critical Care.  2005 Apr;58(4):764-9.
  • Kassam-Adams, N., Marsac, ML, Hildenbrand, A., Winston, F.K. Posttraumatic stress following pediatric injury: Update on diagnosis, risk factors, and intervention. JAMA Pediatrics. 2013 Dec 1;167(12):1158-65.
  • Margolin G, Vickerman KA. Posttraumatic stress in children and adolescents exposed to family violence: I. Overview and issues. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice. 2007 Dec 1;38(6):613-619.
  • Morales JR, Guerra NG. Effects of multiple context and cumulative stress on urban children’s adjustment in elementary schoolChild Development. 2006 Jul-Aug;77(4):907-23.
  • Rossman BBR, Hughes HM, Rosenberg MS. Children and interparental violence: The impact of exposure. Psychology Press, 2000.
  • Shonkoff JP, Garner AS, CHILD TCOPAO, et al. The Lifelong Effects of Early Childhood Adversity and Toxic Stress. Pediatrics. 2012 Jan;129(1):e232-46.